Multiple Sclerosis - 2
Agatha M. Thrash, M.D.
Half a million Americans are estimated to have multiple sclerosis (MS) or a related disease. About one-third of these will suffer emotional or intellectual disturbances. Some persons will have partial blindness, loss of speech or equilibrium, tremor, paralysis, weakness, spasms, sensations of "pins and needles," numbness of fingers, visual loss, vertigo, impotence, constipation, urinary urgency or frequency, urinary incontinence, hearing loss, seizures, and loss of bladder and bowel control.
Women are twice as likely to be afflicted as men. Up to 80% of patients with optic neuritis (a painful condition resulting in temporary partial blindness) will develop multiple sclerosis within 15 years. (Dr. Jonathan Trobe, Ophthalmologist, University of Michigan, Associated Press, December 27, 1993). Some individuals, however, have an accelerated form of MS, and will be totally incapacitated within six months of the onset. MS does not appreciably shorten the life span in most patients except those with the accelerated form, unless a serious complication arises. The average age or onset is 29.9 years. There is no laboratory test that confirms the presence of MS, and the diagnosis is made by the meticulous exclusion of all other disorders that could cause the neurologic defects seen.
MS is one of the most common disorders of the nervous system. The course of MS is highly unpredictable; some patients have repeated attacks and rapid progression and become severely crippled or die within a short time, while others have slow progression of the disease over decades. These patients are in various stages of the disease from mild neurologic symptoms such as a temporary blindness to total paralysis. It is recognized that there is no medical treatment for MS that alters the length or severity of the disease. Steroid therapy does not alter the outcome of the disease, and should not be used because of its serious complications.
Something apparently happens early in life to people who live in the tropics so that their immune systems become resistant to multiple sclerosis. Those living in cold climates get the opposite effect on the immune system that makes them susceptible to multiple sclerosis. The immune system can help to reduce over activity in the myelin sheaths of nerves.
MS is a disorder or the nerves in which the sleeves of myelin surrounding the nerve fiber are destroyed by a process which has as yet eluded researchers. The sites most commonly involved are certain areas near the ventricular system in the brain, the optic nerves, and the white matter controlling muscular coordination in the cerebellum. Human herpes virus six may play a role in the development of multiple sclerosis. (Medical Tribune, Infectious Diseases, October 23, 1997, p.20). Some believe that multiple sclerosis is a carrier state of the Sendai virus and that interferon and prostaglandin A-1, along with other prostaglandins, may block the virus replication. There appears to be an immune deficiency in multiple sclerosis so that the virus is not blocked. A young adult who had his tonsils removed as a child is 1.7 times more likely to get multiple sclerosis than is a person who did not. Removal of tonsils weakens the overall immunity slightly.
Exactly what happens in multiple sclerosis to paralyze the function of nerves is not yet known. There is some belief that multiple sclerosis is not so much a matter of demyelination of nerves as of deficient function of the connections between nerves. (International Journal of Neuroscience 84: 157; 1996).
Symptoms and Signs
The first symptom may be a sudden onset of blindness, or weakness of the leg muscles. It may last a week or two and go away, only to reappear a few months or years later. Gradually the leg movements become jerky and spastic, and paralysis eventually occurs. Another common symptom is slowing of the speech, talking in a monotone with each syllable uttered with great difficulty. The hands tremble, especially on purposeful movement, and the head tends to shake. Eventually such basic functions as sight, hearing, digestion, and control of bladder and bowel movements are involved.Malabsorption was discovered in 52 patients with multiple sclerosis and reported in the American Journal of Gastroenterology 68:560-565, 1977. A type of sugar called d-xylose was demonstrated to be abnormally low in absorption in 26.6 percent. Fat and meat absorption were abnormal in 41.6, and 40.9% respectively. Stools examined for fat and undigested meat fibers were found to be abnormal in these. Biopsy studies of the jejunal mucosa showed the presence of measles - virus antigen in all patients. (American Journal of Gastroenterology 68:560;1977). It would seem by these studies that a special effort should be made by those having multiple sclerosis to have a healthy digestive tract, to boost the immune system in any way possible, and to ensure proper digestion of fats and absorption of vitamin B-12. That would mean eating on schedule, taking two or three dishes only at a meal, using very small amounts if any of watery foods like milk and soup, not eating after about 6:00 p.m., and never lying down after meals. The hot spices and vinegar irritate the digestive tract and should be avoided.Other associated factors have been reported. These include the following: Heavy metal poisoning, high fat diets, low levels of essential fatty acids, overuse of antibiotics, food allergies, childhood infections, carbon monoxide and other environmental poisons, low level radiation, contraceptive pills, vaccinations, genetic predisposition, and climate and geography.
Calcification of the pineal gland has been found in 100 percent of multiple sclerosis patients, and the choroid plexus, a blood vessel cluster in the interior of the brain, was calcified in 72.4%. (International Journal of Neuroscience 61:61;1991).
General Treatment Principles
It is possible to slow down the development of multiple sclerosis. It is not possible, with the current knowledge, to cure it.
The first line of treatment is to protect a disabled patient from conditions which are especially threatening - getting burned in the shower, falling down steps, burns from heating pads, etc. Check all the surroundings for safety, going through everything piece by piece.
On the home remedies front, individuals have claimed benefit or even cure of carefully diagnosed cases from very simple remedies. Most of these remedies cannot cause any injurious influence on the body, and some can be considered a part of general hygiene. Unfortunately, many of these home remedies are regarded by some members of the medical profession as useless or even quackery and may be enthusiastically denounced. While I am as opposed to exploitation of a patient under any guise as the most vocal crusader, I have lost the enthusiasm which I had in my youth for fighting harmless "quackery," as I have found through my 45 years of practicing medicine that many things generally relegated to backwoods practitioners when I began medicine have become main line modes of therapy. Further, when the patient is responsible and participating in selecting and applying the remedy, it seems that he feels he must be more careful in all aspects of life, a carefulness which of itself can often give some benefit.
While I would state it differently, I believe as Dr. Michael Halberstam, who states that, "among the most precious of patients' rights is the right to make fools of themselves by their own choices," I certainly believe that when dealing with an incurable disease the patient should be encouraged to try any kind of bath, diet, simple exercise, or other non-injurious treatment that he feels gives promise of success. No claim of cure or false hope should be held out to the patient, merely a manifestation of interest and assistance.
Certainly, it would be well to enhance the immune mechanism by whatever means that can be safely applied. A hot bath one to five times weekly, a proper diet, proper exercise, and other important aspects of healthful living are certainly worthwhile. Patients should adjust such matters as clothing, housing, and habits of life to stabilize heat loss to prevent sudden changes in temperature. Changeable weather has been shown to be more important than either hot or cold weather in inducing symptoms. Days with the highest difference between high and low temperatures affect the symptoms greater. A warm climate and freedom from upper respiratory tract infections coupled with much rest appear to be helpful in the treatment of MS. Very few persons understand that chilling the extremities reduces the defense mechanisms against infection and weakens inflammation and repair. No habitual chilling of skin should be tolerated in a person with MS.
Conventional treatment commonly includes immunosuppressants, immunomodulators, and anti-inflammatory drugs such as steroids. Also used are antispasmodics, anticholinergics (for relief of muscle aches and stiffness), muscle relaxants, antidepressants, and painkillers. Certainly such treatments as methotrexate or cyclophosphamide, which suppress the immune system and cause severe side effects such as vomiting, should be avoided, as the drug is crippling every system that could help the patient.
As many as 30% of patients may stabilize with natural treatments after a two-year period, and not exhibit a relentless downhill course. (Science News, April 22, 1989, page 135245). We try to get all patients to stabilize. Persons with multiple sclerosis should try a routine of total vegan diet, fever treatments consisting of fevers going up to 103.6° F daily for five days per week for three weeks, skipping two days after every fifth treatment. They should try some herbs high in plant sterols including licorice root, red raspberry leaf, black cohosh, squaw vine, ginseng and ginkgo.
The sign to begin taking these is optic neuritis, often the earliest warning sign of multiple sclerosis. The person may experience a day or so of blindness as the initial event. Persons who have optic neuritis for a few days have a 16.7% chance of developing multiple sclerosis within the next two years after experiencing the blindness. With the fever treatments, vegan diet, and herbal treatments we can expect the percentage to be reduced.
The first thing to be achieved in a good diet for MS is the permanent and total exclusion of anything that could be considered junk food. The first of these is food high in "free fats," that is, fats not in their natural form, and food containing "free fats." We prescribe a diet entirely devoid of free fats and teach patients how to make the diet palatable with the many foods high in natural fats: nuts, seeds, grains, avocados, olives, etc. White sugar has been implicated by several researchers as being important in producing MS. Additionally, anything that can be purchased from a vending machine is almost certainly junk food. TV dinners and similar types of convenience foods should usually be classed as junk foods.
There are, however, some foods considered nourishing and good that may not be the best for the person with MS. These will be considered individually.
Beef products, both the flesh as well as dairy milk, should be eliminated from the MS diet. There is somewhat more than circumstantial evidence for doing so, as in heavy beef producing areas MS is higher than in other sections. Persons with MS tend to have more antibodies in their blood to beef protein than do persons who do not have MS. Eskimos have very little MS. Perhaps their lack of exposure to beef and dairy products may be helpful in protecting them from a high risk of MS even though they live above the 40th parallel. Of course, since pork is not a good food for healthy persons, all pork and pork products should be eliminated in MS. The most favorable diet is the totally vegan diet, without milk, meat, eggs, or cheese.
The low-fat diet used by Dr. Roy Swank of the University of Oregon Medical School has shown a remarkable benefit for patients, reducing the average number of annual attacks from 1.1 to 0.15, and slowing down the rate at which the disease gets progressively worse. Using a modification of the diet of Dr. Swank we have had similar results. We believe that the diet, being simple and easy, is well worthwhile. Patients usually lose weight when adopting the diet, but stabilize about five to ten percent below average weight, a good weight for anyone with weak muscles. The diet consists of no free fats (mayonnaise, margarine, fried foods, salad oils, nut butters, and cooking fats), and no heavy natural fats in large quantities - nuts, peanuts, seeds, coconut, wheat germ, etc. - an ounce or two a day being sufficient. The person may take a few olives, avocado, and nuts, but should carefully control the quantity of these items especially if overweight is a feature. (2, 3) Other investigators using a low fat diet have reported also a reduced frequency of relapses as well as a shortening of the length of the relapses when this diet is carefully followed. (4) Take one tablespoonful of flaxseed oil twice a day. It has anti-inflammatory effects. Patients with MS should be very careful to avoid rancid foods. Altered fatty acids might have an adverse effect on myelin.
Vegetable and fruit intake should be increased. Patients must be warned against gaining weight and are encouraged to remain lean. Dr. Swank found no severe relapses were ever experienced by a patient who had been on the low fat diet for as long as one year. The longer the diet is followed the lower the relapse rate. The death rate in untreated MS is three to four times higher than in patients on the low fat diet. The earlier the diagnosis and treatment are begun, the greater the success in treatment. (5)
Linoleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid present in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and nuts appears to improve MS as compared to those receiving oleic acid from olives. (7) Since sunflower kernels are high in linoleic acid, we have at times used sunflower seed for patients with MS.
Inositol is a factor especially useful in the early childhood development of myelin. This nutrient is found in peanuts, cantaloupes, grapefruit and all citrus, whole grains, beans and legumes, yeast, wheat germ, blackstrap molasses, and nuts.
Node of Ranvier
Note the cylinder in the center labeled "axon" which is the cell. Surrounding it is the laminated sleeve of myelin. The thin areas, nodes of Ranvier, have the function to give speed to the nerve impulse. In MS, the myelin degenerates in patches which slows the speed of the nerve impulse.
The patient should always maintain a low body weight which can be figured by allowing 100 pounds for one's first five feet, and allowing no more than six to seven pounds per inch thereafter for a man, and five pounds per inch thereafter for women. The patient must exercise daily, and keep in the habit of obeying the eight natural laws of health having to do with nutrition, exercise, water, sunshine, temperance, fresh air, rest (even taking a nap in the daytime if tired), and trust in Divine Power. Trust in God is a study in a warm and affectionate relationship with the One who has almighty power - not that He may heal you but that you may be strengthened to bear all that the evil one brings.
A low-protein diet has been reported by some to improve the general sense of well-being. Adding olives or avocados to the diet may combat dizziness in some patients. A carrot juice fast from time to time may be helpful.
We had one patient named Mary who reported that treatment for her candidiasis also helped her multiple sclerosis. Her Candida program consisted of being off salt of all kinds, taking cold baths, and using all raw foods for three months.
Another patient, Leona, found that elimination of those foods to which the digestive tract is intolerant, resulted in much improvement in symptoms, and better general health. This can be discovered by a carefully performed elimination and challenge diet. Maintain the elimination phase for at least three months, and preferably six. Then add one food back to the diet every two to three weeks to see if symptoms are worse after adding back the food.
Another study done by Drs. Philip Solomon, Mary Dailey, and Tracy Putnam of Harvard Medical School in Boston City Hospital, and reported in The American Society for Clinical Investigation, found that persons with MS had more fibrin in the blood than normal persons, and a greatly increased clotting ability. Since multiple sclerosis onset and relapses are often associated with injury, operation, exposure, infection, pregnancy, or high emotional excitement, all of which are known to be associated with an increase in fibrin, and a slowing of the flow quality of the blood (Science Newsletter, May 18, 1935, page 315) we recommend a reduction in total food intake by about one-third, an increase in outdoor exercise, five ounces of red or purple grape juice twice a day, one clove of garlic twice a day, or comparable amounts of capsules or tablets, along with other measures to reduce clotting and blood viscosity.
Dr. Roy Schwank found fibrin thrombi without red blood cells entrapped in small capillary beds. These were associated with inflammation in nearby tissues close to nerve trunks. Since a high intake of free fats, the use of alcoholic drinks, and inadequately cooked grains are associated with a similar response, the proper cooking of grains is recommended in MS as well as to other persons to insure that all has been done possible to prevent the disease. That means boiling rice three hours at a gentle simmer, oatmeal 90 minutes, and millet for three hours. Oven baked grains need browning on all sides.
Use fever treatments in an effort to slow down the progress of the disease. On the other hand, use cold baths for temporary muscle-strengthening exercises in order to prevent muscular atrophy. For fever treatments, achieve a temperature level of 103-104° F rectally, 30-60 minutes, three to five times weekly for about 20 treatments.
Fever treatments have been given for MS for many decades. Use a bathtub of hot water at 102-110 degrees depending on the vigor of the patient and how well heat is enjoyed. A thermometer is placed in the mouth while the temperature is going up. Someone should be constantly with the person since weakness may develop quickly as the mouth temperature goes up. The mouth temperature may be allowed to rise to 102 or 103°, 103-104° if rectal temperature is measured. This can usually be accomplished in 10-20 minutes with a nice soak in the hot tub. When patients have been treated with hot baths, and are being returned to their baseline temperature, their performance of muscular tasks at the same temperature is significantly better when the temperature is coming down than when it was going up, indicating some improvement in tolerance to heat, although mainly temporary.
There are certain cells in the brain or spinal cord known as astrocytes that form fibers that make a sort of scar tissue in the central nervous system. These scar cells grow on a nerve which has had myelin damage. Heat is believed by some to loosen already formed scar tissue, and to reduce the amount of inflammation so that scar tissue formation will be less.
The use of cold applications in the management of spasticity or paralysis can assist patients to carry out exercise and self-care programs in a more active and functional manner. Techniques for applications of the cold vary somewhat. Moist cold is more effective than a dry ice bag. Heat is not as successful in the treatment of spasticity, or in reducing the weakness. Cold applications consisting of crushed ice wrapped in wet towels placed over spastic groups of muscles for ten minutes should be followed by exercise to the muscles, or groups of muscles, as they will be temporarily stronger after cooling. The favorable effects may last for as long as 12 hours.
Another method of applying the cold is by immersion of an extremity in cold water at 50° F for ten minutes followed by exercise of the part. Injuries and multiple sclerosis have been successfully treated in this way. To immerse a patient in a Hubbard tank at 80° F for ten minutes can increase movement and reduce the stretch reflex. About 30% of patients so managed derived little or no prolonged benefits from cold therapy, but the remainder received measurable help.
Vitamins C and B-6, along with zinc and essential fatty acids such as found in nuts, whole grains, avocados, olives, and various foods from a totally vegetarian diet, can assist the immune system in this regard. Cold-pressed flaxseed oil is a source of linolenic acid (one teaspoonful per day) and borage seed oil, or oil of evening primrose for linoleic acid, can calm down an inflammatory reaction naturally.
It has been suggested that a deficiency of B-12 may be linked with multiple sclerosis. A vitamin B-12 deficiency was associated in ten cases of multiple sclerosis. Only two of the ten patients had pernicious anemia. In the remaining patients the B-12 deficiency was unexplained. A B-12 binding or transport defect was suspected (Journal of the American Medical Association, October 23, 1991;266(16:2210)). We recommend a vegan diet which makes the patient require less B-12. A supplement of B-12 should be given to see if improvement occurs with it. Malabsorption of B-12 was found 11.9% of cases.
Supplements should be made of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and other minerals which appear in some patients to correct cell membrane defects seen in multiple sclerosis patients. Magnesium deficiency gives symptoms very much like some of those experienced in MS. Since calcium is known to be antagonistic both to the absorption of magnesium from food as well as the reclaiming from the tubular filtrate in the kidneys, it is well not to take extra quantities of calcium greater than those found in a multi-mineral preparation. (6)
Vitamin D may be useful in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Multiple sclerosis has a very low incidence near the equator, but as the latitude increases northerly, the incidence of multiple sclerosis also increases. Persons living at higher altitudes also tend to have less MS. One explanation is that ultraviolet light intensity is greater at high altitudes, resulting in an increased vitamin D-3 synthesis rate. Vitamin D may help prevent, as well as treat MS. Vitamin D-3 in the hormonal form has completely prevented the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis that in the mouse resembles human multiple sclerosis.
Of 144 MS patients who ate absolutely no saturated fat but did eat vegetable oils such as olive oil, 95% were still alive and physically active at the end of a 34-year study period. In the control group of MS patients who were not on the diet, 83% died and most survivors became disabled before the end of the study (Western Journal of Medicine 165:320;1996).
In another study, the addition of only about 8 grams (2-1/2 tablespoons) of saturated fat daily to the diet was accompanied by very rapid deterioration and by a death rate of 79% in multiple sclerosis patients. Persons who follow the low fat diet very carefully for multiple sclerosis had a death rate of only 31%, approximately 1/3 as high as those not following the diet.
Some have recommended a gluten-free diet, the person avoiding eating wheat, oats, rye, and barley (and anything containing them).(6) The diet is not difficult to prepare with a little instruction.
An article published in Neurology (September-October 1952) showed a high percentage of allergic reactions to rye and wheat by individuals with multiple sclerosis. All the gluten grains should be removed as a trial for one year. If no improvement is seen, they can be returned to the diet.
Alcohol along with tobacco must all be avoided. Alcohol is a neurotoxin and should not be used.We believe the group of methylxanthine-containing drinks (coffee, tea, colas, and chocolate) should be carefully eliminated. The methylxanthines have a toxic effect on the nervous system. It is not known if they play any part in the development of MS, but certain serious diseases are associated with their use: cancers of the bladder, ovaries, prostate, and pancreas, mental depression, unsteady balance, injury to unborn babies, etc. In Scotland where a high tea, high gluten diet is common, the incidence of MS is high.
There are some cases of MS that have been thought to start during periods of violent exercising. While the benefits of exercise in the treatment of MS have been clearly demonstrated, we urge that patients not engage in too vigorous exercise when the disease is in an acute stage. With chronic disease, however, moderate exercise must be promoted. Prolonged inactivity in persons with MS plays a large part in the progressive deterioration in muscle strength. Patients should keep active, but should not exceed their strength. To go beyond the bounds of reason in taking exercise is never wise.
The patient should try to build up the strength of muscles, being careful not to over-exercise. A program of exercise is good for persons with multiple sclerosis, both to improve the physical condition and the mood. Patients that did arm and leg exercises for 40 minutes, three times a week, for 15 weeks, had greater extremity strength, improved blood profiles, and less depression and anger than non-exercisers. Exercising patients have a better long-term outcome of multiple sclerosis (Annals of Neurology 39:432-441, April 1996).
Since the cause of multiple sclerosis is not known for certain, whether it is an infectious agent, a toxic substance, or an autoimmune disorder, the treatment should address each of these. Charcoal can be given by mouth to insure that no toxic substance that can be adsorbed by charcoal is left loose in the body. Garlic and cilantro taken with meals can help eliminate heavy metals from the body. Use one to three teaspoons of garlic powder, and a sprig or two of cilantro with each meal. Echinacea, chaparral, and goldenseal tea as well as hot baths will help combat an infectious agent. Autoimmune disorders should be treated by strict adherence to all the Eight Laws of Health. Childbirth and major surgery should be avoided as much as possible by those suspected of early stages of MS as these have at times been suspected of precipitating the onset of symptoms.
Bee venom, using one to 20 bee stings at a time, after building up one's tolerance, has been reported by several naturopaths to be very helpful in multiple sclerosis. Royal jelly has also been thought to help repair the myelin sheaths.External application of magnetic fields has been found to be helpful in some cases of multiple sclerosis, and has even included complete remission. A 50-year-old woman with a 15-year history of chronic progressive multiple sclerosis in whom a magnetic field was applied over her scalp with small magnets received a "dramatic and sustained improvement in disability." It was felt that the pineal gland had an influence on the brain to produce a remarkably effective treatment from a weak magnetic field. The researchers felt that the pineal gland was a key player in the production of multiple sclerosis in the body, and that the placement of the magnets over the scalp had an influence on the pineal gland to benefit the multiple sclerosis (International Journal of Neuroscience 66:231-250; 1992).
Associations of Multiple Sclerosis with Environmental Factors Cause of MS
The rate of MS is higher than has been previously estimated. In Canada, the previous estimation was 40 per 100,000 but now appears to be between 110-133 cases per 100,000 within the general population in Vancouver. Over 50% of the patients first resided on a farm as compared with 31 percent in a town and 18 percent in a city. These percentages correlate fairly well with the expected exposure to milk-producing livestock and egg-producing poultry between rural and urban population groups.
The disease is more common in the higher latitudes. Those parts of Europe and America north of the 40th parallel have more MS. The location of a person's childhood appears to determine to a large degree the risk one has to develop the disease.
Persons habituated to tobacco or those who are exposed to smoke secondhand tend to get more of the central nervous system symptoms of MS.
Development of multiple sclerosis has been associated with many environmental factors, especially occupational exposure to solvents, occupational contact with dogs or cats, leisure-time contact with caged birds, receiving x-ray treatments, and serious previous diseases (Scandinavian Journal of Work and Environmental Health 19:399; 1993). Another possible relationship is with chlamydia infections.
The increased consumption of animal fat may be associated with multiple sclerosis as there is a greater prevalence of multiple sclerosis in countries with a high average daily per capita consumption of fats, oils, protein, and total calories, especially calories of animal food origin (Archives of Neurology 31:267; October 1974). There is a striking correlation between the world distribution and consumption of dairy products and the incidence of multiple sclerosis (Abstract from The Journal of the American Dietetic Association April 1977, p.444, and The New Zealand Medical Journal 83:427; June 23, 1976). As milk consumption goes up in a population, so does multiple sclerosis (Neuroepidemiology 11:304;1992).
Viral infections can trigger multiple sclerosis relapses (Journal of Neurology 240:417;1993). Perhaps viruses living in animals should have greater attention from researchers. Multiple reports show a correlation between bovine populations, other farm animals, and house pets with multiple sclerosis (Neuroepidemiology 12:15;1993; Journal of the American Medical Association, August 22, 1977;238:854; Lancet, 1,980-982,1977). A 92% of patients with MS had close contact with a house pet, whereas only 48% in the control group had similar contact. Especially impressive was the incidence of contact with sick dogs, distemper being most commonly reported in the Journal of the American Medical Association study. MS may be due to a slow virus that acts somewhat after the fashion of polio. Antibodies to distemper virus are found in the blood more in patients with MS than in controls who do not have MS. Distemper virus is related to the human measles virus. Measles virus particles have been found in some individuals with MS, but most authorities believe there is insufficient evidence for accepting this hypothesis. That viruses are involved in the disease, however, seems to be a strong possibility. The use of vaccinations and other sera as a cause of MS has been suggested by the fact that there is often the onset of MS or an exacerbation of MS following the use of a vaccine or some kind of serum.
Dr. Frank Oski reported in his book, Don't Drink Your Milk, pages 54-55 (Publishers: Teach Services, Route 1, Box 182, Brushton, New York 12916), that a low incidence of multiple sclerosis correlated most strikingly with a relatively low per capita milk consumption. He reports several studies revealing the same finding.
Bibliography on Multiple Sclerosis
1. Modern Medicine, December 15, 1977, p.11-13
2. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, Vol. 36, pp. 322-325, April 1960
3. Nutrition Today, November-December 1977, p.34
4. British Medical Bulletin, Vol. 33(1), pp. 47-83, January 1977
5. Archives of Neurology, Vol. 23, pp. 460-474, November 1970
6. The Lancet, October 5, 1974, p.831
7. British Medical Journal, Vol. 2, pp. 1390-1391, 1978
8. Archives of Neurology, Vol. 31, pp. 267-272, 1974
9. Postgraduate Medicine, Vol. 59, pp. 219-221, May 1976
10. Annals of Neurology, Vol. 6(5) p. 456, November 1979
11. The Physical Therapy Review, Vol. 39(5), pp. 297-299, May 1959
12. Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, NY, Vol. 41, pp. 127-130, Jan-Feb. 1974
13. Brain Research, Vol. 36, pp. 133-151, January 14, 1977
14. Physical Therapy Review, Vol. 8, pp. 333-334, May 1958
15. The Medical Journal of Australia, October 12, 1963, p. 612-614
Multiple Sclerosis Supplements:
Omega-3, source: seeds (flaxseed)
Omega-6, Source: spinach, kale.
Vit. B-12 1000 mcg twice daily
Vit. B6 50mg three times daily (aids the nervous system)
Gamma linolenic acid (GLA) 3 times daily with meals (amt. on table)
Calcium 2000-3000 mg daily
Potassium 300-1000 mg daily (needed for normal muscle function)
Vit. C 3000-5000 mg daily
Beta Carotene 15,000 IU daily
Vit. D 800 IU daily
Vit. E 400-1800 IU daily
Vit. K 200 mcg three times daily helps prevent nausea (vomiting)
Lecithin granules 1 tbs. 3 times daily
Lecithin capsules 1200 mg 3-4 times daily
Manganese 5-10 mg daily (often deficient in people with MS)
Phosphorus 900mg daily (needed for transport of energy within the cells)
Selenium 200-400 mcg daily
Choline, source: lecithin (needed for proper nerve impulse transmission)
Biotin, source: Brewer's yeast, soybeans, whole grains
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