Are Animal Products Safe Today?
Agatha M. Thrash, M.D.
I. THE SITUATION
Disease Among Seventh-day Adventists - Of all people in the world, Seventh-day Adventists, enriched by divine counsel, should be the healthiest. Yet they seem to be only partially enjoying the "none of these diseases" promise?¹ On the whole, they do enjoy better than average health; yet many are dying from cancer, heart failure, strokes, and other conditions which are preventable.
A likely cause - Years ago, Ellen G. White indicated that, because of the increase of disease, the time would come when it would be no longer safe to use animal products.²
The question - Has that time come? Is it now?
The purpose of this study - to review the counsels given and to compare them with pertinent scientific findings in an effort to arrive at a satisfactory solution to the question, "Are Animal Products Safe Today?"
II. THE SITUATION EXPLORED
A. Flesh Foods
Nature of the Problem - Permission to eat "clean" animals following the flood was, at best, a temporary provision. Later, when the Lord brought ancient Israel out of Egypt, He gave them a non-flesh diet - manna - during the forty years wandering,³ and was clearly displeased by the peoples lust for flesh.⁴ Later still, Daniel and his companions were tested over the use of flesh. They decided against it. (See Appendix, Note 1) God honored them for their faithfulness. Their superiority, physically and mentally, was particularly noted by their associates, and even by the king himself.⁵ It was never God's design that man should continue to eat flesh food, especially in these last days.
1883 "Meat is not essential for health or strength, else the Lord made a mistake when He provided food for Adam and Eve before their fall. All the elements of nutrition are contained in the fruits, vegetables, and grains."⁶
1890 "Again and again I have been shown that God is trying to lead us back, step by step, to His original design."⁷
1897 "Cancers, tumors, and all inflammatory diseases are largely caused by meat eating."⁸
1901 "Instruction has been given me that physicians who use flesh meat and prescribe it for their patients, should not be employed by our institutions."⁹
1902 "I am instructed to say that if ever meat eating were safe, it is not safe now."¹⁰
1902 "There are those who ought to be awake to the danger of meat eating, who are still eating the flesh of animals, thus endangering the physical, mental, and spiritual health. Many who are now only half converted on the question of meat eating will go from God's people to walk no more with them."¹¹
Cancer is a virus disease - It is interesting to note that it was not until 1956 that scientists began to publish their belief that viruses cause most, if not all, human cancers.¹²
Identical leukemia virus found - By 1968, scientists could verify 60 viruses that were known to cause cancer in every major group of animals. Of the two viruses that can be detected in human cancer victims, one is identical with the virus that causes leukemia in animals.¹³
Cancerous animals sold for food - Despite growing evidence of similar cancer viruses in man and animals, animals with malignancies are still allowed to be sold by merely removing the obvious cancer area. For example, one year three million cattle were sold for food that had malignant eye tumors when slaughtered. Nevertheless, after condemning only the heads, the carcasses were sold for food.¹⁴
Tumorous animals sold for food - While cancers that have spread to the liver are easily discovered during the slaughtering process, the primary tumor source is not always readily apparent. In one year, 2,400,000 beef livers were condemned because of disease, but the rest of the animal, including the primary source, was permitted to be sold as food for man.¹⁵
Cancerous growths in fish increasing - Livers and carcasses condemned for human consumption are regularly used for food in fish hatcheries and in spawning beds. These are often cancerous. Now an increasing percentage of the salmon catch in our Pacific northwest are fish with cancerous growths.¹⁶
Dietary indiscretions can activate viruses - It is known that viruses can lurk in the human body for years, even a lifetime, and never cause any trouble. However, studies now show that a virus may be activated through circumstances such as aging, dietary indiscretions, hormonal imbalance, radiation, or a combination of stresses and malignancies may follow.¹⁷
Cancer and charcoal broiled meats - Studies show that benzopyrene, a cancer causing substance that can be isolated from cigarette smoke, is present in significant amounts in charcoal broiled meats. (See Appendix, Note 2)
Federal meat inspection inadequate - Federal meat inspectors annually condemn as unfit for human consumption hundreds of thousands of animals. But their jurisdiction is limited to meat sold in interstate commerce. (See Appendix, Note 3) Animals with abscesses and pyemia are commonly passed for sale after removing grossly infected organs or tissue. (See Appendix, Note 4) Many meat processing plants are inadequately staffed with meat inspectors, making it impossible for all the meat stamped, "Grade A Inspected" to have been inspected. One processing plant in Atlanta, Georgia, processes 85,000 chickens per day with eight inspectors. That would require each man to "inspect" more than 10,000 chickens in a day.¹⁸
Ralph Nader Report - Ralph Nader charges that the United States Department of Agriculture favors big "agribusiness" and therefore fails to protect otherwise defenseless Americans from bad meat, contaminated poultry, and toxic pesticides. In most states, nearly unmonitored inspectors tend to be subjected both to intimidation and bribes. As a result, they routinely approve "4-D" animals (dead dying, diseased, and disabled) for processing.¹⁹
Some meat additives found to be carcinogenic - Inspection deficiencies are but one set of many problems today. Meat additives, such as sodium nitrite can combine with chemicals to form nitrosamines, and are among the most potent cancer-causing agents yet discovered. (See Appendix, Note 5)
Meat eating and cancer linked - More and more scientists are finding that there is a direct link between eating meat and many of today's serious life-threatening diseases, especially cancer. (See Appendix, Note 6)
The more meat in the diet the more likely a cancer - The National Cancer Institute and the American Cancer Society have now clearly shown that the incidence of several cancers increases with the amount of meat and fatty foods consumed.²⁰
B. Milk and Eggs
Nature of the Problem - Knowledge and application of truth to practical life is progressive. God expects His people to keep pace with the light. Around the turn of the century, counsels were given regarding the use of milk and eggs. The science of nutrition was quite undeveloped. Mrs. White knew, for example, that eggs contained certain unknown "remedial properties" essential to life and health. She advised the use of milk and eggs in limited quantities. At that time vitamins as such were not known. It was not until 1912 that the term "vitamin" was coined. Since then much has been researched and knowledge has greatly increased. We now know how to obtain practically every essential element and vitamin from the vegetable kingdom with the possible exception of B12. Nutritionists declare that there is no adequate vegetable source of this vitamin. It is asserted that the human body cannot absorb the B12 synthesized by bacteria in the colon. Because this vitamin is so important some nutritionists strongly resist totally discarding the use of all animal products. Yet the Lord has warned, "The time will soon come when there will be no safety in using eggs, milk, cream, or butter, because disease is increasing in proportion to the increase of wickedness among men."²¹ In view of the fact that disease has indeed greatly increased, and much is known about the animal source of diseases communicable to man, and since the Lord has declared, "In grains, fruits, vegetables, and nuts, are to be found all the food elements that we need,"²² the following data is herewith submitted for the reader to prayerfully consider.
1870 "A cow may be apparently well in the morning and die before night. Then she was diseased in the morning, and her milk was diseased, but you did not know it. The animal creation is diseased."²³
1899 "There is no safety in the eating of the flesh of dead animals, and in a short time the milk of cows will also be excluded from the diet of God's commandment-keeping people."²⁴
1899 "The light given me is that it will not be very long before we shall have to give up using any animal food. Even milk will have to be discarded. Disease is accumulating rapidly."²⁵
1902 "Let the people be taught how to prepare food without the use of milk or butter. Tell them that the time will soon come when there will be no safety in using eggs, milk, cream, or butter, because disease in animals is increasing in proportion to the increase of wickedness among men."²⁶
Milk as a vehicle for transmitting malignancy - The death of two chimpanzees would normally pass unnoticed except that they died of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, a disease which though not unknown to man, had never previously been seen in nonhuman primates. The chimpanzees were fed on milk from a herd of cows having a high incidence of lymphosarcoma. Although there had been reports suggesting that milk might be a vehicle for transmitting a viral type of malignancy from cow to calf, the last thing researchers expected was that these two chimpanzees would die from a disease not previously seen in nonhuman primates.²⁷
Atherosclerosis and milk - Dr. Kurt Oster, Chief of Cardiology, Park City Hospital, Bridgeport, Connecticut, believes that atherosclerosis can be traced to the action of an enzyme found in cow's milk on the intima of the arterial wall. He notes that atherosclerosis has its origin in youth, when there is a high consumption of cow's milk. It is interesting to note that cancer incidence throughout the world certainly bears a suspicious relationship to milk consumption, being the highest in the countries having big dairy industries (See Appendix, Note 7).
Salmonella infection and food poisoning from milk - During the investigation of an interstate outbreak of gastroenteritis due to Salmonella in New Brunswick, instant nonfat dry milk was found to be the vehicle of infection. Surveys of milk-drying plants in various states resulted in the isolation of numerous Salmonella serotypes from dried milk products. In addition to Salmonella, powdered milk has been implicated in outbreaks of staphylococcal food poisoning in Puerto Rico and the United Kingdom. Present annual dried-milk production in this country is estimated to be in excess of two billion pounds.²⁸
Lactose intolerance and other milk-related problems - According to a report in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association, the bulk of the worlds opulation is probably intolerant to milk. Lactose intolerance is usually associated with abdominal cramps and diarrhea.²⁹
Over 50 million Americans cannot tolerate milk. Why? - About two-thirds of these people become ill if they use as little as one glass of milk. The problem is that double sugars cannot be absorbed from the intestine. They must all be broken into single sugars. At the cell lining of the small intestine there is an enzyme, lactase, which splits lactose into the single sugars, glucose and galactose, so they can be absorbed. In mammals this enzyme begins to disappear after weaning. In man the amount of the enzyme begins to decrease sharply after two years of age. Almost all infants have abundant amounts of this enzyme to nourish them through the suckling phase of nutrition. When the enzyme disappears from the intestinal wall, the individual's ability to split lactose diminishes and his ability to absorb milk sugar decreases accordingly. The undigested lactose is fermented in the intestines and forms products that draw water out of the circulation into the bowel. The process causes intestinal irritation, with formation of acids and gas, distention, pain, cramps, and may progress to diarrhea. This condition was not recognized until 1959.³⁰
A factor in heart disease and malnourishment - Medical scientists also believe that the fat in milk increases the risk of heart disease. Other studies show that milk causes malnourishment of older infants, especially leading to iron deficiency anemia, when milk alone is allowed to satisfy a child's hunger.³¹
Allergy - Allergy specialists now say when a child has repeated colds, think of milk allergy. About two-thirds of children allergic to milk will improve and remain well on a soy formula.³²
1898 "In a short time, it will not be safe to use anything that comes from the animal creation. Those who take God at His word and obey His commandments with the whole heart, will be blessed. He will be their shield of protection. But the Lord will not be trifled with."³³
1902 "Tell them that the time will soon come when there will be no safety in using eggs, milk, cream, or butter, because disease in animals is increasing."³⁴
1905 "As disease in animals increases, the use of milk and eggs will become more and more unsafe. An effort should be made to supply their place with other things that are healthful and inexpensive. The people everywhere should be taught how to cook without milk and eggs so far as possible, and yet have their food wholesome and palatable."³⁵
Even during the time that the counsel indicated eggs could be used awhile longer (1905), it was only if "great care should be taken, to obtain ... eggs from healthy fowls."³⁶ Still others were warned they should not use them because of their "stimulating" effect.
1905 "Especially in families of children who are given to sensual habits, eggs should not be used."³⁷
Disease risk increasing - About the same time the last "warnings" were written, as quoted above, questioning the safety of using eggs in the near future, cancer was identified in chickens for the first time. Lymphomatosis has increased greatly since 1905, when it was first noted. The virus of this cancer is transmitted through the nasal secretions, droppings, and the eggs.³⁸ In 1954, 100,000,000 chickens in the United States died of lymphomatosis and leukemia.³⁹
Malignancies Transmitted - Francis Peyton Rous, Nobel Prize winner for medical research done in 1910, showed that a malignant tumor of chickens could be transmitted to healthy chicks by a cell-free extract obtained from the tumor.⁴⁰
Virus transmission - In 1973, an epidemic of the virus strain of Newcastlesease among southern California's poltry flocks revealed that humans were affected by exposure to the virus, giving a flu-like disease. Studies conducted by the Loma Linda School of Health, Loma Linda, California, revealed, 1) that human beings could transmit the Newcastledisease to each other; therefore, each case did not need to originate from a diseased chicken; 2) only the most virulent strain of the virus was ever recovered from humans, regardless of what may have been the virus to which they were exposed, suggesting that humans may amplify virus strength.⁴¹
High source of cholesterol - Studies show that a high dietary cholesterol intake is a significant contributor to the heart disease syndrome. One egg contains 250-300 mg. of cholesterol. Today, Americans are advised to restrict their total dietary cholesterol intake from all foods to under 300 mg. per day. The average American's cholesterol intake is presently 600 mg. per day.
1868 "Cheese should never be introduced into the stomach."⁴²
"Children are allowed to eat flesh meats, spices, butter, cheese, pork, rich pastry, and condiments generally.... These things do their work of deranging the stomach, exciting the nerves to unnatural action, and enfeebling the intellect."⁴³
"Cheese is still more objectionable; it is wholly unfit for food."⁴⁴
Food poisoning - Cheese, like other dairy products such as ice cream and butter, does not receive the attention from public health officials that it merits. The most frequently reported disease from cheese is food poisoning, which accounted for 35, or 61%, of the 59 epidemics with 1,389 cases, or 47.9% of the total 2,904 cases reported. There are today only seven states and Canada that have laws regulating the manufacture and sale of cheese. The majority have required a 60-day holding period in lieu of pasteurization. This holding period is too short for Cheddar-type hard cheese, since many of the pathogens do not die or their toxins are not inactivated in that time. Fifty-nine epidemics due to cheese have been reported in the United States and Canada since 1883, with 2,904 cases of disease and 117 deaths. There is every reason to believe that this represents only a part of the disease caused by cheese.⁴⁵
Swine pepsin used as coagulant - for years the enzyme rennet, obtained from the stomachs of calves, has been used for the clotting of milk in making cheese. Recently, because of a shortage of calf rennet, pepsin obtained from the stomachs of swine is also being used. Now that both rennet and pepsin are being used, depending on which is most economically available, cheese manufacturing companies are reluctant to specify which coagulant they are using.⁴⁶
Never should be used as food - Let the reader keep in mind the above information is in addition to the counsel saying cheese is "wholly unfit for food."⁴⁷ The fact that recently swine's pepsin was introduced in the processing only adds to our knowledge of its unfitness.
III. THE SITUATION REVIEWED AND CLARIFIED
A brief summary - It has been shown 1) that the time would soon come when animal products would be unsafe on account of disease; and 2) that knowledge of nutrition was inadequate and, as a temporary measure, it was better not to discard the use of animal products altogether.
A matter of expediency - Seventy-five years ago, it was not the time.
1873 "We have always used a little milk and some sugar. This we have never denounced, either in our writings or in our preaching. We believe cattle will become so much diseased that these things will yet be discarded, but the time has not yet come (1873) for sugar and milk to be wholly abolished from our tables."⁴⁸
1901 "The time will come when milk cannot be used as freely as it is now used; but the present time (1901) is not the time to discard it. And eggs contain properties which are remedial agencies in counteracting poisons."⁴⁹
Why? - It was not appropriate seventy-five years ago to discard all animal products.
1909 "Some, in abstaining from milk, eggs, and butter, have failed to supply the system with proper nourishment, and as a consequence, have become weak and unable to work. Thus health reform is brought in disrepute."⁵⁰
1901 "As the situation now is we cannot say that milk and eggs and butter should be entirely discarded - for few know how to properly supply the place of that which they discard."⁵¹
How to prepare for total abstinence from animal products - Meanwhile, what were we to do? (Even then, it was becoming unsafe to use anything that came from the animal kingdom.)
1902 "Let the diet reform be progressive. Let the people be taught how to prepare food without the use of milk or butter. Tell them that the time will soon come when there will be no safety in using eggs, milk, cream, or butter, because disease in animals is increasing in proportion to the increase of wickedness among men."⁵²
1905 "The diet reform should be progressive. As disease in animals increases, the use of milk and eggs will become more and more unsafe. An effort should be made to supply their place with other things that are healthful and inexpensive. The people everywhere should be taught how to cook without milk and eggs so far as possible, and yet have their food wholesome and palatable."⁵³
IV. THE URGENCY OF THE HOUR
1898 "There is no safety in the eating of the flesh of dead animals, and in a short time the milk of the cows will also be excluded from the diet of God's commandment-keeping people."⁵⁴
1898 "In a short time it will not be safe to use anything that comes from the animal creation... But the Lord will not be trifled with."⁵⁵
1898 "The light that God has given me is that the curse of God is on the earth, the sea, the cattle, on the animals. There will soon be no safety in the possession of flocks or herds. The earth is decaying under the curse of God."⁵⁶
1899 "The light given me is that it will not be very long before we shall have to give up using any animal food. Even milk will have to be discarded. Disease is accumulating rapidly."⁵⁷
1900 "Animals are becoming more and more diseased, and it will not be long until animal food will be discarded by many besides Seventh-day Adventists."⁵⁸
1902 "The time is near when, because of the iniquity of the fallen race, the whole animal creation will groan under the diseases that curse our earth."⁵⁹
1902 "Tell them that the time will soon come when there will be no safety in using eggs, milk, cream, or butter, because disease in animals is increasing in proportion to the increase of wickedness among men."⁶⁰
V. THE TIME TO ACT
What to do - Seventy-five years ago we were "not at liberty to present the most advanced propositions regarding health reform diet."⁶¹
Today, however, we have the knowledge as a people to "prepare health reform foods that are palatable, nourishing, and yet inexpensive."⁶² God is seeking to prepare His people for the coming crisis of the ages. He is anxious, too, for them to receive in full His "none of these diseases" promise. In view of the urgency of the counsels and with today's abundance of food and technology, along with the increase in disease in all animals, it seems reasonable to conclude that the time has come to act, for animal products are indeed unsafe today.
1890 "Again and again I have been shown that God is trying to lead us back, step by step, to His original design - that man should subsist upon the natural products of the earth."⁶³
1900 "As we near the close of time, we must rise higher and still higher upon the question of health reform and Christian temperance, presenting it in a more positive and decided manner. We must strive continually to educate the people, not only by our words, but by our practice."⁶⁴
1902 "The light God has given on health reform is for our salvation and the salvation of the world."⁶⁵
1905 "Grains, fruits, nuts, and vegetables constitute the diet chosen for us by our Creator. These foods prepared in as simple and natural a manner as possible, are the most healthful and nourishing." (See Appendix, Note 8)⁶⁶
1906 "In grains, fruits, vegetables, and nuts are to be found all the food elements that we need."⁶⁷
"Disease is an effort of nature to free the system from conditions that result from a violation of the laws of health. In case of sickness, the cause should be ascertained.... Then nature is to be assisted in her effort to expel impurities and to reestablish right conditions in the system."⁶⁸
A Matter of Faith - Often the counsels of the Lord are contrary to human reasoning. When Mrs. White had her visions regarding the use of animal products, she gave instruction that was in advance of her times. It is striking how statement after statement from her pen has been later confirmed by science. Seventh-day Adventists, with the abundance of light that has been granted them, are a privileged people above all other people of the earth. The presence of a prophetess in their midst has given them a distinct advantage. Mrs. White should not be considered as a gift to Seventh-day Adventists alone, but as God's gift to the whole world. Those who have followed her counsels, regardless of their religious belief, have been truly blessed.
There is danger that those who have learned to respect her as a messenger of the Lord might repeat the mistake of the Jews in bygone days who garnished the tombs of the prophets, but were slow to believe all that they had spoken. The faith of God's children today is being tested just as were His ancient people. Let all who love truth and righteousness in this, our day, be quick to respond to the promptings of the Holy Spirit. To obey the Lord when science indicates that it is safe to do so is not moving by faith, but by sight. Who is on the Lord's side? Let him not wait until every doubt is cleared away and every seeming difficulty removed. Let him not wait until disease in the animal kingdom assumes pandemic proportions. Those who do so may awaken to discover that the day of salvation has passed, and it is forever too late.
The "none of these diseases" promise is not unconditional. It is for those only who take God at His word and act. The Scriptures testify to the success of God's healing program. "He brought them forth also with silver and gold: and there was not one feeble person among all their tribes." (Ps. 105:37) "Bless the Lord, O my soul, and forget not all His benefits: Who forgiveth all thine iniquities; who healeth all thy diseases; who redeemeth thy life from destruction: who crowneth thee with lovingkindness and tender mercies; who satisfieth thy mouth with good things; so that thy youth is renewed like the eagle's." (Ps. 103:2-5)
Note 1, Page 1 - Flesh meat was never a part of Daniel's dietary. "This request (not to defile themselves with a portion of the king's meat) was not preferred in a defiant spirit, but was solicited as a great favor.... Daniel and his companions... were courteous, kind, respectful, possessing the grace of meekness and modesty.... They decided that as flesh meat had not composed their diet in the past, neither should it come into their diet in the future. And as the use of wine had been prohibited to all those who should engage in the service of God, they determined that they would not partake of it..." (In Heavenly Places, p. 261).
Note 2, Page 2 - Cancer and charcoal broiled meats - Benzopyrene, the same carcinogenic substance isolated from cigarette smoke, is present in charcoal broiled meats. The fat from the meat drips on the fire, is converted by heat to benzopyrene, evaporates, and rises to deposit on the meat.
T-bone steak 50
Sirloin steak 11.0
Barbequed ribs 10.5
Pork chops 7.9
Smoked salmon 1.0
Two micrograms of benzopyrene caused cancer when injected beneath the skin of experimental animals. (Public Health Service Publications, No. 1103, "Smoking and Health," p. 143)
Note 3, Page 2 - Federal meat inspection inadequate.
In 1956, Federal meat inspectors condemned:
99,000 hogs and 1,600,000 part of hog carcasses
65,000 sheep and lambs
120,000 carcasses of cattle and calves
330,000 parts of carcasses of cattle and calves
2,400,000 livers of beef (13% of all inspected)
(1956 Yearbook of Agriculture, pp. 12, 13)
Note 4, Page 2 - Federal meat inspection inadequate - Carcasses of 459,881 cattle with abscesses and pyemia were passed for sale after removing grossly infected organs or tissue. In addition, 3,227,605 swine were similarly passed. (O. S. Parrett, M.D., Life and Health, Oct. 1969)
Note 5, Page 3 - Meat additives found to be carcinogenic - The Agriculture Department plans to force the nation's bacon producers to remove the dangerous cancer-causing additive, sodium nitrite, or stop selling bacon. Sodium nitrite, used to preserve color and consistency, and to prevent botulism, can combine with chemicals to form nitrosamines, among the most potent cancer-causing agents yet discovered. (UPI, The Atlanta Constitution, Oct. 20, 1975, p. 1)
Note 6, Page 3 - Meat eating and cancer linked - Dr. R. J. Boscott and a survey team of Queensland University, Australia, are studying the possibility that eating chicken causes cancer. The United States Department of Agriculture is funding the research because it feels the evidence is convincing that chickens transmit a virus resulting in Marek's disease, leading to leukemia, lymphoma, and Hodgkin's disease. (PHASDA Facts, Vol. 9, No. 4, 1975).
Note 7, Page 4 - Atherosclerosis and milk
Atherosclerosis Death Rate (per 100,000) and Fluid Milk Consumption (lbs./person), 1967.
Finland 244.7 593
United States 211.8 273
Australia 204.6 304
Canada 187.4 288
United Kingdom 140.9 350
Netherlands 106.9 337
W. Germany 102.3 213
Austria 88.6 327
Italy 78.9 137
Switzerland 75.9 370
Sweden 74.7 374
France 41.7 230
Japan 39.1 48
(Medical World News, Feb. 18, 1972).
Note 8, Page 8 - In a recent study of fatigue in athletes it was pointed out that "the only way to guarantee adequate trace elements in the diet is to eat varied fruits, vegetables, grains, and nuts." (United Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Association, April 1976, p. 8)
1. Exodus 15:28.
2. Counsels on Diet and Foods, 411, 349, 384.
3. Exodus 16:35.
4. Exodus 16:2, 3, 12.
5. Numbers 11:4, 6, 31-34.
6. Daniel 1:6-21.
7. Counsels on Diet and Foods, 395.
8. Ibid. 380.
9. Ibid. 388.
10. Ibid. 290.
11. Ibid. 384.
12. Ibid. 382.
13. Harold Mozar, M.D., Review and Herald, (May 2, 1957), "Is Cancer a Germ Disease." Quoting Dr. Wendell Stanley, University of California, Nobel Prize winner in his remarks at the Third National Cancer Conference, 1956.
14. Medical World News, (April 19, 1968) quoting Dr. Frank Rauscher, National Cancer Institute. Agriculture Year Book, "Animal Diseases" (1959).
15. H. Habenicht, M.D., Scientific Evidence - On Meat Eating (May 1970), p. 11.
17. Dr. Wendell Stanley, Newsweek, (June 18, 1956).
18. Dr. Sansomon, American Public Health Department, Seminar Lecture, Loma Linda School of Public Health, (1973).
19. Time, (August 2, 1971), p. 46.
20. Ibid. (February 2, 1976), p. 43.
21. Counsels on Diet and Foods, 349.
22. Ibid. 310.
23. Ibid. 330.
24. Ibid. 411.
25. Ibid. 384.
26. Testimonies, Volume 7, 135.
27. Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center, Emory University.
28. J.A.M.A., (March 4, 1968), p. 118-124.
29. Life and Health, (June 1975), p. 6.
30. Lawrence E. Lamb. M.D., F.A.C.P. & F.A.C.C., The Health-Letter, (Jan. 23, 1976, Vol. III, No. 2).
31. J.A.M.A., (May 5, 1975), p. 539.
32. Consultant, (Jan. 1968), p. 41.
33. Counsels on Diet and Foods, 411.
34. Testimonies, Volume 7, 135.
35. Counsels on Diet and Foods, 469, 470.
36. Ibid. 365.
38. J. A. Scharffenberg, Special Topics in Nutrition, Loma Linda University School of Health, Loma Linda, California.
39. Agriculture Year Book, "Animal Diseases" (1965), pp. 446-474.
40. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 12:696.
41. Ministry Magazine, (Aug. 1974), p. 35.
42. Counsels on Diet and Foods, 368.
43. Testimonies, Volume 7, 136.
44. Ministry of Healing, 302.
45. F. W. Fobian, American Journal of Public Health, (37:987).
46. Review and Herald (Oct. 24, 1974), p. 13.
47. Ministry of Healing, 302.
48. Counsels on Diet and Foods, 330.
49. Ibid. 204.
50. Ibid. 207, 208.
51. Ibid. 352.
52. Testimonies, Volume 7, 135.
53. Counsels on Diet and Foods, 469, 470.
54. Ibid. 411.
56. Ibid. 414.
57. Ibid. 384.
59. Testimonies, Volume 7, 135.
63. Counsels on Diet and Foods, 380.
64. Ibid. 443.
65. Testimonies, Volume 7, 136.
66. Counsels on Diet and Foods, 310.
67. Ibid. 310.
68. Ministry of Health, 127.
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